When it comes to space travel, we’re best to focus on well-tested scientific theories. Here are some of the main ones:

Theory 1: Rocket Propulsion (already in use)

Theory 2: General Relativity (already used indirectly)

Theory 3: Nuclear Fusion (future possibility)


These are just estimates, and breakthroughs could change things:

Beyond Travel: Exploration and Theories

Here are some more speculative theories, not based on established science but still interesting thought experiments:

It’s important to remember that space travel is an ongoing scientific endeavor. As we learn more about the universe, new theories and technologies might emerge, pushing the boundaries of what’s possible.

Also, from another source:

Space travel, exploration, and beyond involve various scientific theories and technologies. Here are some of the most plausible theories and concepts behind these endeavors, along with potential timelines and timescales:

  1. Rocket Propulsion:
    • Theory: Newton’s third law of motion states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Rocket engines work by expelling mass at high speeds to generate thrust.
    • Timeline: Rockets have been used since the mid-20th century, with advancements continuing today.
  2. Orbital Mechanics:
    • Theory: This involves understanding how objects move in space under the influence of gravitational forces.
    • Timescale: Johannes Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, formulated in the early 17th century, laid the groundwork for our understanding of orbital mechanics.
  3. Escape Velocity:
    • Theory: The minimum speed required for an object to escape the gravitational pull of a celestial body.
    • Timeline: The concept has been understood since the time of Isaac Newton in the late 17th century.
  4. Spacecraft Propulsion Technologies:
    • Theory: Beyond chemical rockets, there are other propulsion technologies being researched, such as ion drives, nuclear propulsion, and solar sails.
    • Timescale: Ion drives have been used in various spacecraft since the late 20th century, while nuclear propulsion is still in the experimental phase.
  5. Interplanetary Travel:
    • Theory: The idea of sending spacecraft to other planets or celestial bodies in our solar system and beyond.
    • Timeline: The first interplanetary missions, like the Mariner missions to Mars in the 1960s, set the stage for future exploration.
  6. Interstellar Travel:
    • Theory: Travel between stars involves overcoming immense distances and timeframes, requiring technologies like faster-than-light (FTL) travel or generation ships.
    • Timescale: While the concept is popular in science fiction, current scientific understanding suggests it remains highly challenging with no immediate solution.
  7. Wormholes and Warp Drives:
    • Theory: These are theoretical concepts that could potentially allow for faster-than-light travel by bending spacetime.
    • Timescale: These concepts remain largely theoretical and are subjects of ongoing research and speculation.
  8. Exoplanet Exploration:
    • Theory: The study and potential exploration of planets outside our solar system, known as exoplanets.
    • Timeline: The first confirmed exoplanet discovery was in the 1990s, and since then, thousands have been identified.
  9. Life Beyond Earth:
    • Theory: The search for extraterrestrial life, either microbial or intelligent, is a major focus of space exploration.
    • Timescale: Efforts like the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have been ongoing since the mid-20th century, with various missions targeting potential habitable worlds.
  10. Colonization and Space Habitats:
    • Theory: Establishing permanent human settlements on other planets, moons, or in space habitats.
    • Timescale: While plans for Mars colonization are being developed by organizations like SpaceX, widespread colonization remains a distant goal.

It’s important to note that while many of these concepts are based on well-established scientific principles, others, like FTL travel and some aspects of wormholes, are still highly speculative and theoretical. As technology advances, our understanding of these concepts may evolve, potentially leading to breakthroughs that change our approach to space travel and exploration.