“Push” and “Pull” are terms commonly used in marketing and supply chain management, representing different strategies and tactics to reach and influence customers. Here’s an overview of both:

Push Strategy

Definition: A push strategy involves pushing products towards customers. The goal is to bring the product to the customer, often through marketing, advertising, or direct sales efforts.


  1. Trade Promotions: Offering discounts, deals, or incentives to retailers or wholesalers to encourage them to stock and sell your product.
  2. Personal Selling: Sales teams actively reach out to potential customers through direct contact, phone calls, or email marketing.
  3. Point-of-Sale Displays: Using prominent in-store displays to capture consumer attention and encourage immediate purchase.
  4. Direct Mail Campaigns: Sending promotional materials directly to potential customers to inform them about products or services.
  5. Sampling and Demos: Providing free samples or product demonstrations to entice customers to make a purchase.



Pull Strategy

Definition: A pull strategy focuses on creating demand for a product among consumers, who then seek out the product from retailers. This approach aims to pull customers towards the product.


  1. Advertising and Mass Media Promotion: Using TV, radio, online ads, and social media to create awareness and interest in the product.
  2. Content Marketing: Creating valuable content to attract and engage potential customers, such as blogs, videos, infographics, and e-books.
  3. SEO and SEM: Optimizing websites and running search engine marketing campaigns to attract organic and paid traffic.
  4. Social Media Marketing: Building a strong presence on social media platforms to engage with and attract followers.
  5. Public Relations: Generating positive media coverage and building a favorable public image to increase demand.



Combining Push and Pull Strategies

Many companies use a combination of both push and pull strategies to maximize their reach and effectiveness. For instance, a company might use a push strategy to introduce a new product and get it into stores, while simultaneously using a pull strategy to generate consumer interest and demand. This integrated approach can help ensure that products are not only available but also sought after by customers.

When considering push and pull strategies, it’s important to recognize the differences and synergies between offline and online environments. Both have unique advantages and challenges, and their effectiveness can vary depending on the target audience, product, and overall marketing goals. Here’s a comparison:

Offline Strategies

Push Strategies

1. Trade Promotions:

2. Personal Selling:

3. Point-of-Sale Displays:

4. Direct Mail Campaigns:

5. Sampling and Demos:

Pull Strategies

1. Advertising and Mass Media Promotion:

2. Public Relations:

Online Strategies

Push Strategies

1. Email Marketing:

2. Online Advertising:

3. Influencer Marketing:

4. Affiliate Marketing:

Pull Strategies

1. Content Marketing:

2. SEO (Search Engine Optimization):

3. Social Media Marketing:

4. Public Relations:

Integrating Offline and Online Strategies

1. Consistent Branding:

2. Cross-Promotion:

3. Data Integration:

4. Customer Experience:

5. Event Marketing:

By leveraging the strengths of both offline and online strategies, businesses can create a robust marketing approach that maximizes reach and engagement with their target audience.