The traditional Hierarchy-of-Effects Model in advertising is a more detailed interpretation of the advertising funnel. This model was originally proposed by Lavidge and Steiner in 1961 and outlines the sequential steps consumers take from becoming aware of a product to making a purchase decision. Here’s a more detailed look at each stage:

Hierarchy-of-Effects Model

Cognitive Phase (Thinking)

  1. Awareness:
    • Objective: Make consumers aware of the brand or product.
    • Tactics: Broad advertising, social media, PR campaigns, sponsorships.
    • Outcomes: Consumers recognize and recall the brand.
  2. Knowledge:
    • Objective: Provide information about the product and its benefits.
    • Tactics: Informative content, educational videos, blog posts, product demos.
    • Outcomes: Consumers understand what the product is and what it offers.

Affective Phase (Feeling)

  1. Liking:
    • Objective: Develop a favorable attitude toward the brand.
    • Tactics: Engaging content, emotional appeals, storytelling, influencer endorsements.
    • Outcomes: Consumers feel positive emotions towards the brand.
  2. Preference:
    • Objective: Make the brand preferable over competitors.
    • Tactics: Comparative advertising, user testimonials, highlighting unique selling points.
    • Outcomes: Consumers prefer this brand over others.

Behavioral Phase (Doing)

  1. Conviction:
    • Objective: Strengthen the consumer’s intention to purchase.
    • Tactics: Free trials, samples, detailed product reviews, personal selling.
    • Outcomes: Consumers develop a strong intention to buy the product.
  2. Purchase:
    • Objective: Convert intention into actual purchase.
    • Tactics: Simplified checkout process, promotional offers, follow-up reminders.
    • Outcomes: Consumers complete the purchase.

Importance of the Hierarchy-of-Effects Model

By understanding and applying the hierarchy-of-effects model, marketers can create more effective advertising campaigns that guide consumers from initial awareness to final purchase, ensuring that each step in the consumer decision-making process is addressed appropriately.